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The Building energy simulation. Various application scenarios

The 3D Building Information Modeling (BIM) model, along with its associated data, can serve various purposes, including simulations and analyses aimed at enhancing the environmental and social sustainability of design decisions. This expands the BIM process to encompass sustainability considerations for buildings.

Key applications include:

- Evaluating the energy efficiency of the building.

- Assessing the carbon footprint generated during both the construction and operation phases.

- Simulating solar exposure and assessing natural and artificial lighting.

- Managing construction waste and promoting resource efficiency.

Recent trends indicate a growing interest in digital twin technology, urban modeling, and building-to-grid interaction within the depicted application scenarios. 

Objectives of optimization of energy performance of buildings

The objectives for energy performance optimization of buildings are:

1) Rational, cost-effective minimization of energy consumption, by the selection of environmentally friendly materials and techniques;

2) Maximization of use of low carbon and renewable energy sources for the supply of buildings;

3) Reduction of the gap between predicted and actual energy performance of buildings; and

4) Decarbonization of buildings by decrease of embodied energy share and origin.


The use of BIM tools to improve energy efficiency throughout the building life cycle provides an introduction to the use of BIM tools for energy-efficient design, construction and operation of buildings.

Optimization of the energy performance of a building is carried out in four stages of a building life cycle:

1. Plan and design stage

2. Construction stage

3. Operation and maintenance (O&M) stage

4. End of life – demolition or renovation

The operation stage contributes the most to the carbon footprint due to its extended duration. Nonetheless, decisions and actions taken in other stages also play a role in determining the overall carbon footprint. Among these stages, the design phase holds the greatest influence on the carbon performance of buildings as it serves as the primary decision-making stage.

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